The term Baptist for this discussion is directed to the development of the religious sect that grew out of the English Separatist movement of the 1580's and the merging of certain religious tenets in Holland during the period from 1600-1612. Primary to this early development was a former English clergyman John Smyth, and the rise of the General Baptists and the Particular Baptists in England.
During the Reformation there was a hotly debated theological discussion between the early Protestants and the the Roman Church and its sacraments. The rite of baptism was one of these tenets. The great reformers: Luther, Calvin and Zwingli continued to administer infant baptism within their own traditions, as did the Church of England and the Roman Church.
Other traditions such as the Anabaptists rejected the new Reformation theology and that of the Roman Church. They cited the practices of the New Testament Churches as contrary documentation to support their own theological views. Among these were the question of adult baptism or what became known as "believers baptism". The validity of all infant baptism were called into question based on their interpretation of the Scriptures.
The usage of the term Baptists within the historical context of the period 1550-1660 is subject to interpretation. Some of the early Baptists writers and historians wrote of a pre-existing Baptist tradition before 1550 in England, Scotland and Wales. Historical research has called into question the historical evidence to support many of these early writings. The use of the term pro-Anabaptist for some of these groups might be more appropriate rather than Baptist.
There were two primary Baptist traditions in England before the Restoration (1660): the General or Arminian Baptists (ca.1612); and the Particular Baptists (ca. 1640's). Some primitive or proto-Baptist congregations in England existed between 1600-1660. Some of these early congregations died out while others merged with other congregations. Many of these early congregations were often mixtures of variant tenets often calling themselves "Baptists", but many did not survive the Restoration (1660).
The early English Separatist generally held that all sacraments still valid even if its Church administration was deemed corrupted or tainted by catholicism. The Church of England and the Roman Church sacraments were still considered valid. This view would gradually changed among later English Separatist congregations that would question or reject all baptisms even their own.
For later separatist congregations, only a "true church" could administer a valid baptism. The only question than became who was a "true church" to administer a valid baptism? Infant baptism and adult baptism became a hotly contested question in many English Independent congregations from 1600-1660.
Another theology came out of the post-Reformation, what is generally labelled as an Anabaptist tradition. Claiming New Testament authority only for a "believers baptism" where only an individual of "the age of reason" can make a personal judgment to be baptized was considered to be valid. Infant baptism in this tradition were considered as invalid, against scripture.
John Smyth (1554?-1612)
Most historians generally agree that the development of a basic Baptist polity
From 1600-02, John Smyth occupied the position of Lecturer to the Corporation of the City of Lincoln. He was dismissed from this position for unstated reasons, politics have been suggested.
There was also a sermon in the Cathedral by Smyth on the episcopacy that way have raised a few concerns in certain quarters. Smyth was not considered a radical, but may not have been as staunch a supporter of the Church administration would have been liked.
Between 1604-06, Smyth may have run a fowl of the Bishop of Lincoln for unstated reasons. Smyth may have been over zealous in his preaching, or too willing to voice his own personal religious views of the Church.
Smyth may have failed to subscribe to the Canon of 1604, or may have been deprived of his living, or had his preaching license revoked. There is some indications that Smyth and his family may have taken up residence near Clifton which was just outside of the Lincoln See during 1604-07. He seems to have made a living for his family.
Smyth was undoubtedly familiar with the area around Gainsborough-on-Trent, and may have had friends there. He may have become aware of the new independent congregation under Richard Clyfton (d. 1616) about 1605. [Editor note: See Barrowist section.]
Richard Clyfton (d. 1616)
Clyfton would establish an Independent congregation based on Brownist or quasi-Barrowist principles. The initial congregation was established at Gainsborough-on-Trent ca. 1606 under Richard Clyfton.
The new congregation grew quickly and soon became a potential security risk from the Church authorities. A decision was make to divided the Gainsborough congregation for safety. A portion of the Gainsborough congregation would move to the small community of Scrooby near Clyfton's former parish by early 1607. Clyfton decided to accompany the new congregation. This community was selected for its location and possible local support.
This left the Gainsborough congregation with only an Elder, Thomas Helwys and minus one full time pastor. Clifton may made regular trips back and forth between the two congregations for a certain period of time. Clifton was getting on in years and may have been unable to continue to actively support both congregations on a regular basis.
During 1607, we find John Smyth staying with Thomas Helwys (1550?-1616?), the Elder of the Gainsborough congregation. Helwys was a wealthy merchant living at Broxtowe Hall. Smyth was soon elected as the new minister of the Gainsborough congregation as a replacement for Clyfton.
The new Archbishop of York and his agents were busy looking for dissident clergy and nonconforming congregations in his See. Some members of the Scrooby congregation had already been fined, or jailed which included Helwys' wife. A decision was soon made to move both of the congregations to Europe. The Gainsborough congregation set off first for Holland in late 1607 and early 1608.The Scrooby congregation was to then depart shortly thereafter.
Holland was selected as a major refuge for English separatists and
religious dissidents. Amsterdam was a major capital and the home to
another prominent Barrowist congregation, The English Exiled Church in Amsterdam,
Soon after the Scoorby arrival in Amsterdam during 1607-08, John Smyth
entered into communion with
Disagreements soon began between the two minister, Smyth and Johnson (1562-1618). Smyth had his own ideas on the proper methods on how a congregation should be run. Smyth became critical of the Johnson administration in running his own congregation Disagreements soon began, Smyth was even beginning to questioning some of the basic tenets of Barrowism. [Editor Note: See Barrowism Section].
The Scrooby Congregation in the mean time was having their own problems in making their initial crossing. Their initial ship captain reported them to the authorities, and many were arrested and jailed. Their second attempt also did not go well, only part of the congregation mostly women had bordered their ship and just escaped. Many of the men were to rendezvous with them. The remaining men were arrested and sentenced to stay in the Boston Jail. After being released from jail, the remainder of the congregation did finally sail for Amsterdam.
The Scrooby congregation was now
under its new minister
During the later part of 1608 the Scrooby Congregation under John Robinson, the Gainsborough Congregation under John Smyth, and Francis Johnson were all communicant members of the same congregation under one roof in Amsterdam. By early 1609, John Robinson was looking to move his own congregation to another location away from Amsterdam, and the ongoing problems between Smyth and Johnson.
During the end of 1609 or by early 1610 John Smyth and his Gainsborough congregation were no longer in communion with the Francis Johnson English Exiled Church in Amsterdam. Smyth was either asked to leave, or he simple left on his own is uncertain. Smyth not being a man to run from an argument, Smyth than proceeded to establish the Second English Exiled Church in Amsterdam under his own leadership in opposition to Johnson.
Smyth's' theological conflicts with Francis Johnson on Barrowism had only fueled his own desire for more religious enlightenment. Smyth was a popular preacher and he was soon administering to other congregations in addition to his original Gainsborough Congregation. Smyth was by now expanding beyond the confines of traditional Barrowism.
Smyth was struggling with one of the major Separatist issues of the day, the question of what constituted a valid baptism. Having rejected his own infant baptism and its original administrative body, i.e., the Church of England. John Smyth began to search for another answer.
Barrow and other separatists had rejected the sacraments of the corrupted Church of Rome, and those tainted such as the Church of England. Only a true non-tained Church could administer a valid baptism according to Barrow.
Not knowing what to do, Smyth in a revelation decided to baptize himself from a basin, and thereby acquired the appellation of "Self-Baptiser" or the "Se-Baptist". This act itself provided little resolve for Smyth's' question except to promote his own notoriety in Europe. He would later renounced the act.
Baptism by immersion in water became a symbol for being raised again as a new person in Christ, and harkened back to John the Baptist. This was at variance with basic earlier Separatist-Calvinistic doctrine of infant baptism. Once having accepted the basic theological tenets of the Dutch Waterlanders, Smyth was baptised in the new theology of adult or believers baptism.
Smyth baptised both Helwys' and his other congregation members in this new form of adult baptism. They were sometimes referred to as "Dippers" for the use of immersion.
John Smyth became increasingly more under the influence of the Dutch Waterlanders, and their theology.
During 1610 Smyth had attempted to form a permanent union with the local Dutch Waterlanders congregation. Both Helwys and Robinson issued a letter to the Dutch Waterlanders requesting not to accept the union proposal, which they did. This act resulted in a division within Smyth's own congregations.
In a relatively short period of time from 1607-1612, John Smyth was
able to influence the development of a new English congregational
system where none had previously existed. The fruits of his efforts
were passed on to his principal disciples:
After 1611, John Smyth would continue ministering to his own local congregations. At the time of Smyth's' death in 1612, most of his remaining congregation had not yet merged with the local Anabaptist congregations. Symth was a well known as respected member of Amsterdam society. His buried in the Olde Kirk was a major event in 1612.
Thomas Helwys with members of his remaining Gainsborough-on-Trent congregation head3d back to London, and arrived at Spitalfield, the old site of the former convent hospital just outside the eastern alls of the City of London ca. 1611-12. The approximate area is just east of modern Liverpool Street Station, Spitalfield Market, London E1.
Helwys was arrested and questioned concerning his writings and theological views. Unwilling to recant, Helwys was thrown into prison in 1613, and may have died while in prison. The exact date of his death is uncertain but 1616? is often given. The time period between 1613-1616 is still rather vague.
Murton may have spent some time in prison with Thomas Helwys during the period between 1613?-1616? It may be assumed that Helwys and his congregation kept a low profile after Helwys was sent to prison.
Murton became the Elder of the congregation on Helwys death ca.1616?. He continued the basic guidelines as laid down by Helwys. In 1624 there seems to have been a falling out in the Murton congregation.
By 1625, some five affiliated Helwys-Murton congregations were active in London, and in a few in other large cities. Former members of the Smyth's Second English Exiled Church in Amsterdam (1608-1612?) may well have migrated into the 1630's, and may have provided some stability for the early Helwys-Murton congregations. Information on the Murton congregation in London after 1626 is incomplete.
Whether or not the early Helwys-Murton congregation should be considered the well spring of the first General Baptist congregations, or possibly the mother congregation from which the General Baptists sprang is still uncertain. More research is needed in this area.
General or Arminian Baptists
The roots of the early English General Baptists are still unclear. They may have developed from returning exiled separatist congregations from Holland after 1612. The Helwys-Murton congregation during 1612-1626 has some spin-off congregations which may have contributed to other possible groups. Helwys-Murton would seem to share a parallel development with the early General Baptist Churches.
The term General or Arminian Baptist seems to have come into common usage about 1625. Documented history of this group before 1625 demands more research. The early General Baptists congregations were not a large community of believers by the standards of the day.
General Baptists were known for their strong anti-Calvinist message. They preached a strong Arminian or "free will" message of universal salvation. Also called "general redemption" this is sometimes cited as the origin of the name. Sometimes referred to as Arminian Baptists, or "rustic Pelagianism" they found much of their support among the poorer classes of London and in the rural areas of England.
General Baptists embraced salvation by good works, and the separation of Church and State. They incorporated the church administrative structure of Elders and Deacons as expounded earlier by John Smyth and the Helwys-Murton congregations. They practiced adult baptism by immersion with its quasi-Anabaptist overtones. There was a strong anti-clerical bent that authority proceeded from the Bible rather than the congregation. There was also a strong emphasis on individual personal salvation.
From the mid-1620's to the 1640's, General Baptist congregations had spread throughout England. In 1641, a General Meeting was held in Whitechapel (London). This meeting attracted large crowds resulting in many arrests and imprisonment for those attending the meeting. There are estimates of some fifty congregations in place by 1650.
General Baptists were more open and less structured congregations than other Independent congregationss. The doctrinal beliefs within the General Baptists congregations could be rather broad from semi-Anabaptist to more traditional separatist views. This was a dual edged sword for them in attracting new members, and than keeping hold of them afterwards.
General Baptist's suffered from its own radical fringe elements. Their traveling itinerant preachers were considered trouble makers by most local civil and church authorities throughout England, but they were very popular among the common folk.
A certain Mrs. Attaway (Attoway) (fl. 1643-46), a member of Thomas Lamb's (d. 1686) General Baptist congregation in London. She was a female tub preacher (i.e. the tub was used as a movable pulpit), and was notorious in London during the mid-1640's. In 1646, he believed that she had been called to be a prophet to the Jews. She with a Mr. William Jenner, as a companion and fellow saint, travelled to Jerusalem to meet Christ, other Old Testament saints, to usher in a new Golden Age for the Jews.
General Baptists were challenged from the mid-1640's by others sects including the Particular Baptists, a pro-calvinist sect. There was little theological agreement between these two divergent points of view: Predestination and Free Will. There were other issues of disagreements between the two.
Both groups became increasing involved with the political movement of the Levellers, and the New Model Army. Baptist membership among the rank and file of the New Model Army was high. Many regiments had their ministers in the ranks, sometimes either General or Particular. With the downfall of the Levellers movement and its New Model Army support in 1650, the General Baptists' center of influence shifted to the more rural areas from London with less visibility.
The General Baptist have been credited with developing the doctrine of the "inner light" which was later embraced by Fox and the early Quakers. The General Baptist survived the Restoration (1660), but were kept under careful watch by the Crown due to a few radicals and potential trouble makers.
Particular or Calvinistic Baptists
The origins of the Particular Baptists are also unclear. Some have contended that they developed from Continental Calvinistic congregations who migrated to England in the 1630's. Some have argued for pro-Calvinists English separatist congregations who migrated back to England. Members of John Robinson's congregation at Leyden are often mentioned as possible sources.
Another theory has its supporters that the Particular Baptist's developed directly from dissident radical congregations in London during the 1630's. The Jacob-Lathrop-Jessey congregation in London is often cited as the mother congregation of the early Particular Baptists. Some of its splinter congregations may have formed the basis of the original Particular Baptist movement. [Ed. Note: See English Dissenters Index: Jacobites.]
Being stern Calvinists, the Particular Baptists reject any relationship with John Smyth, or the early General Baptists who advocated Arminian or "free will" theology with its popish overtones. Some early Baptist authors even postulated a historical tradition in Britain dating as far back as the New Testament.
This is part of historical problem with pre-1660 English protestant sects. Good historical information on religious groups especially outside of the Greater London Area is still sketchy. Small groups of individuals might establish a new congregations that might merger with some other group or just dissolve, or disappear. We might be talking of congregations of under twenty individuals, or just a few families. People were known to move about looking for a good preacher, or the "right" theology.
There were early Independent congregation with baptist leanings. Among these were: Mr. Hubbard ca. 1621 at Deadman's Place (London), they left for Ireland and returned about 1630. John Canne was their pastor on their return to London ca. 1630-33. Canne left the congregation under unspecified conditions for Amsterdam, Holland about 1633. Samuel Howe (d. 1640) became their new pastor until his death.
A number of small quasi-Baptist or primitive Baptist congregations
developed in London between 1630-1645. Among these early congregations
John Spilsbury has been cited as the first of the Particular Baptist congregations. The usage of the designation "Particular Baptist" before 1643 is subject to interpretation. The history of early Baptist congregations outside of London is unclear.
Early Calvinist Baptists felt a special need to establish a valid independent succession of baptism from the Smyth-Helwys and the General Baptist tradition with all of its implications and overtones. Some of these early historical writings have been called more faith than history. The Kiffin Manuscript was often cited as an historical document to support that particular argument.
These primitive baptist congregations seems to have practiced varied
forms of baptism. According to the Kiffin Manuscript, attributed to
According to the Kiffin Manuscript document Blount was duly baptized, he returned to England and baptized another. These two individuals than began to baptized other members of their congregation, and so on according to the Kiffin Manuscript.
The historical authenticity of the Kiffin Manuscript has been called into question by some historians. There is even disagreement among some Baptists scholars regarding the document. Except for the manuscript narrative itself, there would appear to be little factual historical verification of the text, the specific incidents or the individuals cited, i.e. Mr. Blount appear questionable.
There is another related document of the same period, called the Gould Kiffin Manuscript which relates some of the same information of this period. The Gould Kiffin Manuscript is at variance with the original Kiffin Manuscript. The information presented there would appear to be more historically factual than the original Kiffin Manuscript.
The question of baptism by immersion before 1641 was a major topic of concern among the early Calvinistic Baptists. By 1641, adult baptism by immersion was becoming the prevailing practice for many Baptists congregations. Labeled as "Dippers", they too often suffered from allegations of Anabaptist roots.
About 1639/40, the issue of "believers baptism" was again raised in the Lathrop Independent congregation. The new issue was the baptism of the infant child of Hanserd Knollys (Knollis)(ca.1599- 1691), a former clergyman. Knollys had recently returned to England from his New England congregation, ca. 1641. Hanserd Knollys would later start his own Baptist congregation in 1645 in London. Knollys would permit a policy of mixed communion with Independents and presbyterians.
As a member of the Lathrop congregation, Hanserd Knollys refused to allow his infant child to be baptized even at the assistance of the congregation. Infant baptism was considered a requirement tenet under Calvinism. William Kiffin, a prominent merchant, and a member of the same congregation supported Knollys right not to submit his infant child to baptism even if it was against congregational policy.
In May 1640, a Council of Independent congregations in London was called to adjudicate the question of child baptism. The result of the Council vote was the establishment a new Baptist congregation in London. In May 1640, a new London Baptist congregation was created under the leadership of William Kiffin.
William Kiffin has often been credited in large measure with helping to organize the original seven London congregations which issued the First London Confession of Faith (1644). These initial seven congregations formed the basis of the new Particular Baptist assembly in London.
The signatories to the Confession of Faith of 1643 were: William
The designation of "Particular Baptist" as an organized body before 1643 is subject to additional research. Before 1643 there were only individual congregations, after 1643 there was a common Confession of Faith with seven member congregations.
The First London Confession of Faith (1644) became the religious statement for the newly organized London Particular Baptists. A pro-Calvinist statement of doctrine, it is a clear refutation of any possible Anabaptist influences. It is one of the first published documents of its type in England. This document predates the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646). A second edition was issued as the London Confession of Faith (1649).
The Particular Baptist embraced a Calvinistic doctrine of predestination, a "particular" atonement, or salvation for a particular few. This is one theory for the possible derivation of its name. Particular Baptists congregations could be Independent or Congregational in polity. Particular Baptists congregations were noted for their very strict administration of their congregations.
During the Interregnum (1649-1660), the Particular Baptists with their strong Calvinist message attained large memberships throughout Great Britain, and Ireland. By 1644 there were some forty-seven congregations outside of London. They vied for power within the New Model Army and became associated with the Levellers political movement.
Particular Baptists competed with other radical sects of the period including the early Quakers and the Presbyterians. They influence declined with the New Model Army in 1649, and the Levellers political power base. They survived the Restoration (1660), and were carefully watched by the Crown.
Particular Baptists also sought the freedom of the New World. There they were able to multiply and grow in the new English Colonies.
Seventh Day Baptists
Seventh Day Baptists may have existed as early as 1640 and were common by 1650. They espoused an old belief known as Sabbatarianism. The seventh Day of the week was Saturday, and the Sabbath for the early Christians, and the Jews.
Sabbatarianism was the belief that the Sabbath was to be worshiped on the last day of the week, namely Saturday or the Jewish Sabbath, in accordance with the Old Testament tradition rather than on Sunday the first day of the week. Some groups even advocated following those Jewish customs associated with the Mosaic dietary laws. Sabbatarianism was practiced within different sects, and other congregations including puritans, presbyterians, Calvinists, and the Church of England.
The Seventh Day Baptists were considered more radical congregations comprised of former General and Particular Baptists including other non-Baptists. Some of these radical Baptists congregations were closely linked with the Fifth Monarchy Men, [Ed. Note: See English Dissenters Index: Fifth Monarchy Men.] a radical Millennium group popular from 1650-1660.
There are indications that individual Seventh Day General Baptists, and Seventh Day Particular Baptists congregations also existing during this period. Seventh Day Baptist congregations survived the Restoration(1660), and many of these prospered in the New World.
All Baptist groups faced some form of persecution after the Restoration (1660) and were watched. Lingering Anabaptist connections persisted, and their earlier associations with former radical sects such as the Fifth Monarchy Men, and a few fire brands among the faithful added to their radical reputation to the Crown.
The English Baptists made a major contribution to toleration, free will, and the "inner spirit" that found expression in the Quakers during the 17th century. Baptists would make their way to the British colonies. They would grow and prosper in the New World, and worldwide into the 21st century.
[Anon.] The Fountain of Free Grace Opened (1645)
[Anon.] Tub-preachers overturn'd (1647)
[Anon.] A Confession of faith of the several congregations or churches of Christ in London, which are commonly (though uujustly) called Anabaptists, ... (1652) [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1684:18] [Wing C5787]
______. [Another ed.] (1653) [Wing C5788A] [ESTCR233672]
Ainsworth, Henry, 1551-1622? A defence of the holy Scriptures (1609)
______. A seasonable discourse, or A censure upon a dialogue of the anabaptists, intituled, A description of what God hath predestinated concerning man; is tryed and examined ... (1644) [EEb, 1641-1700; 80:3, 237:E.50, no. 8] [Wing A-813]
______. A seasonable discourse, or A censure upon a dialogue of the anabaptists, intituled, A description of what God hath predestinated concerning man; is tryed and examined ... (1651) [EEb, 1641-1700; 830:18] [Wing A-812]
Alison, Richard, fl. 1588-1606. A plaine confutation of a treatise of Brownisme entituled: Description of a visible Church. ... (1590) [EEb, 1475-1640; 276:04] [STC 355] [ESTCS100153]
Barber, Edward, d. 1674? A Small Treatise of Baptisme, or Dipping. [EEb, 1641-1700; 251:143(17)] [Wing B694] [Thomason tract; 25:E.143(17)] [ESTCR212733]
B[arebon], P[raisegod], 1596?-1679. A Discourse Tending to prove the Baptisme, ... (1642)
Baxter, Richard, 1615-1691. Aphorismes of Justification (1649) [STC 1598]
______. Plain Scripture Proof of Infants Church-membership and Baptism (1651)
______. Relnutt, thomasiquiae Baxterianae, Sylvester, M. (ed.) (1696)
______. More proofs of infants church-membership and consequently their right to baptism
Bernard, Richard, 1568-1641. Separatist schisme (1609) [Whitley 2-609]
______. Plaine evidences (1610)
Busher, Leonard. Religious Peace: or A plea for Liberity of Conscience (1614) [STC 4189]
Chamberlen, Peter, 1601-1683. A letter to Mr. Braine Br. of Divinity concerning an administration of water-baptisme  [EWEb, 1641-1700; 1664:14] [Wing C1897]
______. Master Bakewells Sea of Absurdities ... Calmely Driven back (1650)
Chidley, Samuel. The Separatist Answer (1651)
______. The Dissembling Scot (1652)
Clapham, H., Antidoton or a soueraigne remedie against schisme and heresie (1600)
Cotton, John, 1584-1652. The controversie concerning liberty of conscience in matters of religion ... (1644, 1646)
Davenport, John. An apologeticall reply to a booke called: An answer to the unjust complaint of W. B[est] (1636) [STC 6310]
______. An unjust complaint against an unjust doer, Mr. J. Paget (1634) [STC 6311]
Danvers, Henry, d.1687. Theopolis, or the city of God. New Jerusalem in opposition to the city of the nations great Babylon (1672)
______. A Treatise of baptism (1673) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1186:21] [Wing D233]
______. Innocency and truth vindicated, ... (1675) [EEB, 1641-1700; 413:11] [Wing D223]
______. A rejoynder to Mr. Wills, his Vindiciae, ... (1675) [EEb, 1641-1700; 413:12] [Wing D227]
______. A second reply in defence of the Treatise of baptism ... (1675) [EEb 1641-1700; 1255:4] [Wing D228]
______. A third reply, or, A short reply to Mr. Baxters brief answer to my second reply, ... (1676) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1590:7] [Wing D232]
______. A Treatise of laying on of hands, ... (1697) [EEb, 1641-1700; 888:25] [Wing D236]
Denne, Henry. Grace, Mercy, and Peace ; conteining I. Gods reconciliation to man, 2. Man's reconciliation to God. (1640?) [STC 6610]
Featley, Daniel. The Dippers Dipt (1645)
Goodwin, John, 1594?-1665. Water-dipping no firm footing for Church-communion ...
Helwys, Thomas, 1550?-1616?. An advertisement or admonition unto the congregations, which men call the New Freyerlers, in the lowe C, wrirten [sic] in Dutche. (1611) [EEb, 1475-1640; 1381:14] [STC (2nd ed.) 13053] [ESTCS116912]
______. A short and plaine proofe by the word, and workes off God, that Gods decree is not the cause off anye mans sinne or condemnation. And that all men are redeamed by Christ. As also. That no infants are condemned. (1611) [EEb, 1475--1640; 889:11] [STC (2nd ed.) 13055] [ESTCS118308]
______. A Short Declaration of the mistery of iniquity (1612) [EEb, 1475-1640; 1833:14] [STC 13056] [ESTCS4697]
[______] Obiections: answered by way of dialogue, wherein is proved by the Law of God, by the law of our land, and by his Maties many testimonies that no man ought to be persecuted for his religion, so he testifie his allegeance by the oath, appointed by law . (1615) [EEb, 1475-1640; 1143:04] [STC 13054]
______. "Persecution of religious judg'd and condemn'd in a discourse, between an Antichristian and a Christian ... to which is added, An humble supplication of the King's majesty ..." (1615), in Tracts on Liberty of Conscience and Persecution, Underhill, E. B. (ed.) (1846)
Howard, Luke. A Looking-Glass for Baptists (1672)
Jessey, Henry. A Storehouse of Provisions (1650)Johnson, Francis, 1562-1618. A Brief Treatise ... against two errours of the Anabaptists (1609)
Keach, Benjamin, 1640-1704. The articles of the faith of the Church of Christ, or, Congregation meeting at Horsley-down (1697) [EEb 1641-1700; 994:4] [Wing K46]
______. Antichrist stormed, or, Mystery Babylon of the great whore, and great city, proved to be the present Church of Rome, ... (1689) [EEb 1641-1700; 694:23] [Wing K44]
______. Gold Refin'd, or, Baptism in its primitive purity, ... (1689)
______. Pedo-baptism disproved, ... (1691) [EEb 1641-1700; 717:5] [Wing K79]
______. The laying on of hands upon baptised believers ... (1698)
Kiffin, William, 1616-1701. Innocency vindicated; or, Reproach wip'd off.  [EEb, 1641-1700; 1287:14] [Wing (CD-ROM), 1996) I197]
______. Remarkable Passages in the Life of William Kiffin, Orme, W. (ed.) (1823)
Killcop, Thomas. A short Treatise of Baptisme 
Knollys, Hanserd, 1599?-1691 and Kiffin, William, 1616-1701., The Life and Death of that old disciple of Jesus Christ, and eminent minster of the Gospel, Mr. Hanserd Knollys, ... (1692) [[EEb, 1641-1700; 1262:9] [Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) K715] [ESTCR25128]
[Lambe, Thomas, d. 1673]. The Fountain of Free Grace Opened (1645)______, Two Hyms, or Sprituall Songs, Sung in Mr. Goodwin's Congregation (1651)
______. Truth prevailing against the fiercest opposition, or An answer to Mr. Iohn Goodwins Water-dipping no firm footing for church communion ... (1655) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1288:10] [Wing (2nd ed.) L213] [ESTCR25710]
[Lawrence, Henry]. Of Baptisme (1646)
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______. A discription of what God hath predestinated concerning man in his [brace] creation, transgression, & regeneration. As also an answere to Iohn Robinson, touching baptisme (1620) [EEb, 1475-1640; 1774:16] [STC (2nd ed.) 6773]
______. A most humble supplication
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______. Reasons for becoming a baptist
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______. Of religious communion private, and publique (1614)
______. A Defence of the doctrine propounded by the Synode at Dort, against I. Murton (1624)
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______. A Paterne of trve prayer (1605)
______. Principles and inferences concerning the visible Church (1607)
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______. Paralleles, censvres, observations (1609) [Whitley 2-609]
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______. A Christian plea (1610)
______. The works of John Smyth, Whitley, W. H. (ed.) (2 vols., 1915)
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______. A Treatise Concerning the Lawfull Subject of Baptisme (1643)
______, God Ordinance, the Saints Priviledge (1646)
______, Heart Bleedings for Professors Abominations (1650),
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______. John Robinson: The Pastor of the Pilgrims (1920)
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______. The English Separatist Tradition from the Marian Martyrs to the Pilgrim Fathers (1971)
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______. The English Baptists of the Seventeenth Century (1983)
______. [Another ed.] Rev. and expanded ed. (1996)
______. "The Baptists of Reading, 1652-1715", Baptist Quarterly, 22 (1967-68)
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______. The Baptists of London [n.d.]
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______. "Records of the Jacob-Lathrop-Jessey Church, 1616-1641", Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society, 1 (1908-09)
______. "Rise of the Particular Baptists in London, 1633-1644", Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society, 1 (1908-09)