logo2.jpg (1652 bytes)

Adamites

Adamites were an early Christian heresy dating from the fourth century. As Adam and Eve were naked and without sin in Paradise, so too did these later groups embrace a type of "holy" nudism.

Various sects have embraced these attributes since the early Church: The Adamiani, a small Gnostic sect of the second and third centuries A.D.; in Roman Spain during the fourth and fifth century A.D.; the Turlupins of Medieval France ca. 1370's; and the Taborite's of Bohemia ca. 1640. Some Anabaptists were even accused of stripping their baptismal candidates before being immersed.

English Adamites

An English sect active ca. 1641-1650. The sect probably bears antecedents to the Brethren of the Spirit, a medieval heretical sect sharing many of the same views. The Adamites were viewed on a contemporary basis as the archetypical radicals of the 1640's.

Information about the English Adamites sect lacks good historical data. The primary sources are from contemporary writings of the period ca. 1641-1650. The first published reference to the Adamites date from mid-1641. The sect may have started by early 1641. Any organizational structure to this sect is still questionable. Most eferences for the sect would appear to be mainly in the Greater London Area.

Contemporary accounts have been attributed to nay sayers and critics. Bona fide information on this group is uncertain at best. The references begin to be stereotyped after 1643 in later publications. Specific knowledge of this group after 1650 is scarce, and limited

There is a document of the period known as the "29 Sects in London" (1641). Among these various 29 Sects are included the Adamites. There are no attributions for this document another than to identify the sects listed on the document as being in London. It is an interesting documents of the period, and rather early at this. It does help to date the Adamites in London

Thomas Edward(1599-1647) used the term in his monumental work Gangraene(1646). Adamites as were other radicals of the period were often portrayed as Antinomians.

Antinomianism was the general belief that Moral Law was no longer binding on Man, and that certain individuals may not responsible to a higher authority for their actions by virtue of being in a state of grace or perfection. Wanton and lewd behavior were often ascribed to these groups by their critics. Antinomianism became a common charge against the radical fringe groups. Lewd and wanton behavior was not necessarily limited to cerain individual groups.

Adamites were attributed to be in a "divine state of grace" or religious perfectionism as were Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden before the Fall. In principle they were believed to have rejected most civil, moral and social restraints on their behavior. Individuals could regain their innocence by being unfettered of their clothing and the false modesty of Society, as the reasoning went.

Adamites according to reports of th period held their meetings, or gatherings in the private homes of their members in various forms of undress. There seems to be little creditable evidence to support any public displays of nudity in public by Adamites.

Contemporary drawings of the period often in newspapers, or leaflets might portray the Adamites galavanting in the nude. These became stereotypical iconographic images used as propagandaby their critics. Some contemporary accounts have alleged that this was a female dominated sect.

Adamites behavior has often been attributed to other radical groups. Among these were the Ranters, who exhibited some public "nakedness". Later Ranter images were often based on earlier Adamite iconography. Some early Quakers were also know to appear in public the all together.

Not a great deal is know of these English Adamites except from their critics. Whether just as "straw men" for the local press, or just a few small isolated groups the Adamites probably did exist as a sect if only as a mere shadow of their contemporary accounts. The sect probably did not survive the Restoration (1660).

A SELECT ADAMITE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primaryources

[Anon.] A Discoverie of 29 Sects here in London (1641) [[Wing D1662] [ESTCR171785]

______. A Discoverie of 29 Sects here in London, all of which, except the first are most diveilsh and damable , being these which follow. ... (1641; [EEb, 1641-1700; 255:E.168(7)] [Thomason tracts; 29.E.168(7)][Wing (2nd ed.) D1662A][ESTCR14635]

[Anon.] A Nest of Serpents Discovered, Or, A Knot of Old Heretiques revived, Called the Adamites. Wherein their orginall, increase, and severall ridiculous tenets are plainly layd open (1641); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 255:E.168 (12)] [Wing N470] [ESTCR10755]

Beausobre, Issac de, [1659-1526]. Dissertation de M. de Beausobre sur les Adamites de Boheme, In Histoire de la guerre des Hussites et du Concile de Basle, Lenfant, J. (1731)

Couchman, Obadiah, 󞤐?-1725?]. The Adamites Sermon: Containing their manner of preaching, expounding, and prophesying; as it was delivered in Marie-bone Park, ... (1641); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 979:10] [WingA475B] [ESCTR14668]

______. The Strange and Prodigious Religions, Customs, and Manners, of Sundry Nations. (1688); [EEb, 1641-1700; 2351:12] [Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) C7348A] [ESTCR225682]

Dobrowsky, Josef,󞦉-1829]. "Geschichte der Bömischen Pikarden und Adamiten", in Abhandlungen der königlich böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, vol. IV, Prague and Dresden (1788)

______. [Another ed.] Dejiny ceskych pikartu a adamitu, (1978 reprint)

Piccolomini, Aeneas S. Historia Bohemia (1451)

Tilbury, Samuel. Bloudy Newse from the North, and the Ranting Adamites declaration concerning the King of Scotland with their new league, covenant, and protestation; ... (1650); [1651] [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 116:12] [Wing T1162] [Thomason tracts; 95:E.622[1]] [ESTCR6387]

Yarb, Samoth [fl.1641] . A New Sect of Religion Descryed, called Adamites: deriving their religion from our father Adam. Wherein they hold themselves to be blamelesse at the last day, though they sinne never so egregiously, for they challenge salvation as their due from the innocencie of their second Adam, ... (1641); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1303:12] [Wing B4281C][ESTCR25942]

Secondary Sources

Büttner, T., and Werner, E., Circumcellionen und Adamiten; zwei Formen mittelalterlicher Haeresie, In Forschungen zur mittelalterichen GeschichteBd. 2(1959)

Chalupny, E., "Adamite a Zizka " In Jihocesky sbornik historiky, vol.1, Tabor (1928)

Cressy, D., The Adamites Exposed: Naked Radicals in the English Revolution,In Travesties and Transgressions in Tudor and Stuart England (1999)

Hill, C., The World Turned Upside Down (1975)

Top Up Next Page Next Page

Last Updated: 07-16-13 21:04:00-0800
Copyright 1997-2014 ExLibris.org. All Rights Reserved